Mushroom Compost Overview
Mushroom compost is a natural soil amendment. The compost so produced by growers using organic materials such as hay, straw, corn cobs and hulls, and poultry or horse manure. Materials like gypsum, lime, peat moss, and other organic materials could be in the compost. Once the mushroom mixes into the compost, it pasteurizes with steam to kill harmful pathogens and weed seeds.
Mushroom composting takes about three to four weeks to complete; monitored closely to maintain the optimum temperatures needed for the process. After this process, the leftover will then be disposed of and sold as fertilizer. used as a delicacy and loved for their flavor. Mushrooms are a rich source of nutrients, especially proteins, and minerals. In addition, mushroom contains all the amino acids.
What Is A Mushroom Compost?
The term mushroom compost can refer to the medium called substrate where mushrooms grow. The most commonly used blends of the substrate include a mixture of wheat straw, and horse or chicken manure. The composter can use other ingredients but some of the most commonly used materials.
Mushroom compost generated during the process of growing makes excellent organic compost for varieties of vegetables, fruits, and flowers; it retains moisture and is perfect for plants that require lots of water.
Survival Factors Of Mushroom
The Pleurotus spp. is one of the most widely studied white-rot fungi because of its exceptional properties. The survival of mushrooms and their multiplication is dependent on factors such as moisture, pH level, the ratio of carbon to nitrogen, available minerals, sources of nitrogen, amount of inoculum, etc. The main environmental factors affecting their growth are the air composition of the surrounding substrate, such as the concentration of carbon dioxide.
Industrial Process Of Making Mushroom Compost
In industrial-level production, large quantities of wheat straw are used. First, the bales of straw so soaked in water for a few minutes. The straw then undergoes chipping to make them into finer particles. Manure and mortar are thoroughly blended. Then the straw comes into this mixture placed in a hot compost pile. They moistened and turn daily to begin the process. This turning process can take up to two weeks.
Completion of the initial hot stages kills off any remaining weed seeds. After the completion of this stage, the piles will turn into long rows for a few weeks. The finished compost then pasteurizes to kill off remaining bacteria or weed seeds present or those that might get in. In addition, pasteurization ultimately helps to sterilize the wheat, and manure blend and produces a spotless material. Compost can be inoculated with mushroom spores to grow mushrooms. Mainly used for commercially growing mushrooms on an industrial scale.
Spent Mushroom Substrate
Spend compost is mostly gotten from the mushroom farming industry. This compost is low in nutrients such as nitrogen. The mushrooms that previously used it have consumed a lot of the available nitrogen. However, it is an excellent soil amendment for denser soil. The straw content will help break up clay-like grounds. The spent mushroom substrate will usually be sold as a turf conditioner and used heavily on lawns to improve soil quality. Coffee grounds can be regularly used as a substrate. They are readily available in smaller quantities. Simply pasteurized to be as a mushroom-growing medium. Hardwood dust may also be used in mushroom compost bases.
When blended into the soil, it provides a useful source of organic material. However, it shouldn’t be like standard compost. It could hold enough water for your soil and might become waterlogged, which is not suitable for some plants. Can be a top dresser for lawns and as a good mulch product when they’re still fresh; weed seeds find it more challenging to thrive. Spent mushroom compost mostly pasteurized for sale before packaging. You could bring back the microbes by adding standard compost.
Factors That Affect Production
- The ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N)
Mushrooms need to strike a balance of the carbon and nitrogen ratio in the substrate. The total carbon value in the carbon to nitrogen ratio represents the contents.
- Composition of substrates
Those substrates used in growing mushrooms affect the characteristics of mushrooms. Pleurotus spp. is a saprophyte that extracts its nutrients from the substrate. Such as grasses, wood, and other agricultural residues. Many studies have shown that Pleurotus spp can grow on agro-based wastes; such as wheat straw, rice straw, cotton wastes, sawdust, sugarcane residues, and coffee pulp. Also, cardboard, papers, banana leaves, corn straw, and many others. It is essential to know the chemical composition of substrates before growing in them.
Water is a critical factor that influences mushroom growth. Although the high moisture in the substrate results in difficulty breathing for the mycelium. It limits the transfer of oxygen and stops the development of the fruiting body. It results in the development of some organisms that are not required for the process.
- Sources of nitrogen
Nitrogen source is a significant limitation that affects enzyme production. For example, nitrate is a nitrogen source for mushrooms; efficient nitrate requires an active enzyme. Therefore, nitrate uptake and usage are essential to amino acids and metabolic changes.
These amounts of minerals present in mushrooms are related to species, the areas where there are grown, the time of growth for the fruiting body, and genetic factors. Minerals such as phosphorus, calcium, iron, potassium, copper, zinc, and cobalt are used in the culture media.
How Do You Make Mushroom Compost?
You could start by doing a hot compost process for at least fourteen days. This is to heat your pile to kill any weed seeds and eliminate any harmful bacteria that might be present. After a couple of weeks, you can build a secondary pile and allow the materials to stay for a while. The compost gradually changes its color and breaks down further. The compost produced after the secondary contains more nutrients.
Pasteurization and Sterilization
You need to pasteurize the compost if you use it to grow mushrooms. You could also use hardwood sawdust to sterilize it. For mushroom composts made out of straw or coffee grounds, you could bring a large pot of water to boil and then put your compost material in a mesh or cloth bag.
Please turn off the heat, and let it sit for an hour or up 95 minutes. Your material is now pasteurized. The simplest way to sterilize is to cook your substrate in a pressure cooker for 2-3 hours. Ensure your substrate is inside its grow bag because the process fixes both the substrate and the load.
Factors To Consider When Using Mushroom Compost
Farmers should use the compost with caution due to its high salinity. The high salt levels can kill and harm young and germinating seeds. They also cause damage to plants that are salt-sensitive such as blueberries and azaleas.
Advantages Of Mushroom Compost
- This is a valuable soil amendment for lawns and garden plants.
- They are excellent for water-loving plants as it retains moisture and increases water holding.
- Inexpensive and saves costs.
- enriches the soil and supplies nutrients for the healthy growth of plants.
- It’s a by-product from mushroom growing industries that are recycled with no materials.
- It contains a limited amount of nitrogen for foliage growth as a light fertilizer to enrich the soil.
The soluble salts and other nutrients in mushroom compost can be too concentrated for germinating seeds, young plants, and other sensitive plants; this includes plants such as rhododendrons.
Using too much mushroom compost can ‘burn’ your plants. The best method is by using it in smaller amounts; you could mix it with soil.
Several Usage Of Mushroom Compost
Besides vermicompost and regular compost, mushroom compost can be a great addition to your garden beds. It is easy to make and is ideal for retention.
There are several uses for mushroom compost. First, it can be used as a soil amendment for lawns and garden plants. However, Gardner should use it with caution. Second, it is labeled as SMC or SMS (spent mushroom compost or spent mushroom substrate).
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